Cropping systems that are profitable for farmers and balance societal needs for food, feed, fuel, energy, clean air and water are the focus of Iowa State University’s Long-term Assessment of Miscanthus Productivity and Sustainability project (LAMPS). Miscanthus has received widespread attention as a biomass crop in Europe where it is used primarily for combustion in power plants. It is desirable for this use because of its low water and ash contents and high-energy output to input ratio. The plant also uses nitrogen efficiently and is a perennial crop. Miscanthus is being investigated as a biomass crop for bioenergy and biofuels.